Chapter 7: Mechanisms in Programs and Nature

Section 8: The Problem of Satisfying Constraints

Distribution [of constraint satisfaction]

The distribution shown here rapidly approaches a Gaussian. (Note that in a 5×5 array, there are 10 interior squares that are subject to the constraints, while in a 10×10 array there are 65.) Very similar results seem to be obtained for constraints in a wide range of discrete systems.

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]