Chapter 8: Implications for Everyday Systems

Section 5: Fundamental Issues in Biology

Tricks in [biological] evolution

Among the tricks used are: sexual reproduction, causing large-scale mixing of similar programs; organs, suborganisms, symbiosis and parasitism, allowing different parts of programs to be optimized separately; mutation rate enzymes, allowing parts that need change to be searched more quickly; learnability in individual organisms, allowing larger local deviations from optimality to be tried.

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]