Chapter 9: Fundamental Physics

Section 15: The Phenomenon of Gravity

Manifold [properties and] undecidability

Given a particular set of network substitution rules there is in general no finite way to decide whether any sequence of such rules exists that will transform particular networks into each other. (Compare undecidability in multiway systems on page 779.) And although one might not expect it on the basis of traditional mathematical intuition, there is an analog of this even for topological equivalence of ordinary continuous manifolds. For the fundamental groups that represent how basic loops can be combined must be equivalent for equivalent manifolds. Yet it turns out that in 4D and above the fundamental group can have essentially any set of generators and relations—so that the undecidability of the word problem for arbitrary groups (see page 1141) implies undecidability of equivalence of manifolds. (In 2D it is straightforward to decide equivalence, and in 3D it is known that only some fundamental groups can be obtained—roughly because not all networks can be embedded in 2D—and it is expected that it will ultimately be possible to decide equivalence.)

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]