Index



K combinator, 711, 1121

K^0 particle
and time reversal violation, 1019

K_33 non-planar graph, 527

Kabala (universal object), 1127

Kaluza, Theodor F. E. (Germany, 1885-1954)
and notions of space, 1028

Kampé de Fériet hypergeometric functions, 1009

Kaneko, Kunihiko (Japan, 1956- )
and continuous CAs, 922
in Preface, xiii

Kansas
grid of towns in, 1187

Kant, Immanuel (Germany, 1724-1804)
and complexity in biology, 861
and free will, 1135
and purposes in nature, 1185

Karatsuba, Anatolii A. (Russia, 1937- )
and multiplication, 1142

Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation, 925

Kari, Jarkko J. (Finland/USA, 1964- )
and undecidability in 2D cellular automata, 1138

Kármán, Theodore von (Hungary/Germany/USA, 1881-1963)
and vortex streets, 998

Karnaugh maps, 1097

Kasiski, Friedrich W. (Poland, 1805-1881)
and cryptanalysis, 1086

Kauffman, Stuart A. (USA, 1939- )
and Boolean networks, 936
in Preface, xiii

Kazakhstan
straight railroad in, 1187

KdV equation
as exactly soluble, 1133

Kells
Book of, 873

Kelvin (William Thomson) (Scotland, 1824-1907)
and harmonic analyzer, 1107
and minimum area packings, 988
and models of space, 1027
and Monte Carlo methods, 1192
and thermodynamics, 1019
and vortices in ether, 1044

Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, 988

Kepler, Johannes (Germany, 1571-1630)
and 2-body problem, 972
and computers, 1107
and Fibonacci numbers, 891
and inhabitants of Moon, 1190
and rules of nature, 860
and snowflakes, 992
and sphere packings, 986

Keratin
repetitive structure of, 1003

Kernels
in visual perception, 579

Kerr solution
as exact solution, 1133
and time and computation, 1130

Key sequences
in cryptography, 598

Keyboard characters
for programs in notes, 854

Keystrokes
number to create this book, xiv
as source of randomness, 970

Khinchin (Khinchin's constant), 914

Kidney ducts
branching in, 1008

Kinetic theory
and diffusion equation, 1024
and thermodynamics, 1019

"Kingdom was lost"
and chaos theory, 971

Kingdoms of organisms, 1003

Kingsnake
pigmentation pattern of, 426

Kirby, Laurence A. S. (England/USA, 1952- )
and unprovable statements, 1163

Kirkpatrick, E. Scott (USA, 1941- )
in Preface, xiii
and simulated annealing, 985

Kites
characteristic shapes of, 1183

Kleene star (RepeatedNull), 957

Klein, Oskar (Sweden/Denmark/USA, 1894-1977)
and notions of space, 1028

Klein-Gordon equation
discretization of, 1060
vs. sine-Gordon, 922

Kleinian groups
and circle packings, 986

KleinInvariantJ (modular elliptic function)
and almost integers, 915

Knapping (of stone tools), 1183

Kneading
randomness in, 306

Kneading sequences, 955

Knossos
maze at, 873

Knots
Alexander moves in, 1038
as complex artifacts, 1183
as constructed by rules, 875
in ether as atoms, 1028, 1044
model of atoms as, 1024
as not in 1D systems, 927
theory of, 1046

Knuth, Donald E. (USA, 1938- )
and dragon curves, 893
and Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037
in Preface, xiii
and tests of randomness, 1084

Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037

Koch, N. F. Helge von (Sweden, 1870-1924)
and nested curves, 934

Koch curve, 191, 933
history of, 934

Kolakoski, William G. (USA, 1944-1997)
and cyclic tag systems, 895

Kollectiv (collective)
and defining randomness, 1068

Kolmogorov, Andrei N. (Russia, 1903-1987)
and algorithmic randomness, 1068
and fluid turbulence, 997, 997'

Kolmogorov complexity
see Algorithmic information

Kondo model, 1057

Koran
calligraphy from the, 874

Korec, Ivan (Slovakia, 1943-1998)
and encodings of arithmetic, 1163
and register machines, 1121

KPZ (Kardar-Parisi-Zhang) equation, 925

Krohn-Rhodes decompositions, 1069

Kronecker product, 1073

KroneckerDelta
and orthogonal bases, 1072

Kufi calligraphy, 874

Kummer, Ernst E. (Germany, 1810-1893)
and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166

Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation, 925

Kuratowski's theorem, 1045

Kurdyumov, Georgii L. (Russia, 1953- )
and transitions in CAs, 981